The average life expectancy in Peru is 58 years, compared with 64 years in Chile and 70 years in Cuba. Only 9.8 percent of the rural population and 72 percent of the urban population has access to pipe water. Such a situation, combined with lack of adequate drainage and underlit, over-humid shanty dwellings, encourages disease. The incidence of tuberculosis is the highest in Latin America. This is easily understood when one bears in mind that 60 percent of all Peruvian children under five are malnourished.